PESTEL analysis of the UK

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PESTEL analysis of the UK

This detailed PESTEL analysis of the UK aims to address some of the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal issues affecting the UK today. PESTEL analysis is a very useful tool that helps business strategists to understand the impact of the macro-environmental factors on their businesses. It also helps them in making strategic decisions. PESTEL analysis is usually conducted in the context of an industry; however, it can also be conducted on a country in general.

Political factors affecting the UK

The UK consists of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. It is one of the most powerful countries in the world. It is a modern parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with the monarch (Currently Queen Elizabeth II) being the Head of State. The role of the monarch in the legislative process is largely ceremonial (BBC, 2019).

The prime minister is the head of the government who is elected for a five-year term. Four political parties that mostly dominate the politics of the land are Labour, Conservative, Liberal Democrats, and Scottish Nationalist Party. London is the capital of the UK which is a globally powerful centre of finance and culture.

Political stability is a great strength of the country; however, Brexit has created uncertainties and political debates. Some analysts believe that Brexit will create a chaos unimaginable, whereas others believe it will open doors to immense opportunities for the country. Likewise, recent rise in violence and crimes has caused serious concerns.

The UK maintains very good relations with the United States, and many other countries in the world. It is a permanent member of the UN, and a great power, with considerable influence on global economic, cultural, military, scientific and political affairs. However, its relations with some authoritarian regimes has drawn a lot of criticism.

Economic factors affecting the UK

A very important element in the PESTEL analysis of the UK is the country’s economic landscape. The UK is the 5th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP (The World Bank, 2018). The recession in 2008 had put the economy in trouble; however, the government took necessary steps to improve the economy.

British households faced certain challenges in 2017. Prices in the shops rose at fast rates as the weak pound increased the cost of importing goods to the UK. However, wages did not go up in line with the increased prices. The minimum wage as of April 2019 for people aged 25 or over is £8.21 per hour which is likely to increase in near future.

The current inflation rate is 1.7% as of September 2019. It rose to 3.1% in November 2017. It is worth noting that the Bank of England has set a 2% inflation target. It increased its key interest rate in November 2017. The rate has gone up from 0.25% to 0.5% (BBC, 2017). It is unlikely that there will be another quick increase; however, many analysts believe that the age of low interest rate is over.

The UK has long been a popular destination for foreign direct investment (FDI). Many business tycoons and organisations from around the world have invested in a variety of industries in the UK. Sports, real estate, technology, grocery and many other industries have drawn an enormous amount of interest from overseas.

The current corporation tax rate for company profits is 19%. However, the government announced a reduction to the corporation tax at Budget 2016. From 1 April 2020, the rate will be 18% (GOV.UK, 2018).

Social factors affecting the UK

The UK has a big consumer market. According to the data released in August 2019 by the Office for National Statistics, the population of the UK was 66.4million in 2018. Births continue to outnumber deaths and the population is expected to reach 74 million by 2039. The population is getting older as well. In 2016, 18% of people were aged 65 and over, while 2.4% were aged 85 and over. This has implications on both the labour market and the health care system. However, there are a lot of opportunities for organisations to cater for the needs of older population. Real estate, holiday, insurance, health care and many other companies have already benefitted from this category of population.

The UK has historically been influenced by the concept of social class; however, the population is multicultural. Over the years, companies have developed a variety of new products and markets to cater for the needs of different races and religions. There are still many opportunities out there for organisations to explore.

The UK is one of the top 10 countries perceived to have the most educated population in the world. It is also No. 3 in the rank of overall Best Countries. However, it is worth mentioning that the costs of living and higher education are on the rise.

Technological factors affecting the UK

The UK is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world. London is the great hub for both financial and technological institutions. Businesses are frequently developing new technologies to offer the best solutions for their customers. The advanced technological infrastructure offers entrepreneurs unlimited opportunities to do business in the UK.

Technology sector is a major contributor to the UK economy. A lot of investment and talent are coming into the sector. It is worth noting that the investment and development are spreading across the country. The UK attracted £28bn in technology investment since 2011, compared to £11bn in France and £9.3bn in Germany (McGoogan, 2017). However, the UK is falling behind the USA, South Korea, India, Japan and some other countries in technological development.

Environmental factors affecting the UK

Economic activities impact on the environment; however, the UK has made significant improvements in reducing the negative impact. The government, local councils, newspapers, charities and many others have taken a variety of initiatives to create environmental awareness and reduce the negative impact of economic growth on the environment.

The UK sometimes faces challenging weather conditions. However, weather still plays an important role in tourism. Millions of tourists from around the world come to the UK, particularly during summer. In fact, tourism is booming in the UK and contributes approximately £127bn annually to the economy.

Legal factors affecting the UK

The last element to examine in the PESTEL analysis of the UK is the legal landscape. However, a detailed discussion on the legal environment of the country is beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, the article addresses some of the key areas in brief. The Employment Act 1996 protects rights of employees. Maternity and paternity leave, minimum wage, holiday pay, sick pay, and some other rights are legally protected. Likewise, the Equality Act 2010 protects people from any discrimination.

We hope the article has helped you explore PESTEL analysis of the UK. You may also like reading PESTEL analysis of the USA. Other relevant articles for you are:

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Last update: 16 October 2019

Further reading/references

BBC (2019) United Kingdom country profile, available at: (accessed 15 October 2019)

BBC (2017) UK inflation rate at near six-year high, available at: (Accessed 22 January 2018)

GOV.UK (2018) Rates and allowances: Corporation Tax, available at: (Access 20 January 2018)

McGoogan, C. (2017) Tech sector growing faster than UK economy with 72pc of investment outside London, available at (Accessed 24 January 2018)

ONS (2019) Overview of the UK population: August 2019, available at: (accessed 15 October 2019)

The World Bank (2018) Gross Domestic Product 2018, available at: (accessed 15 October 2019)

Photo credit: Pixabay

Author: Joe David

Joe David has years of experience both in the UK and abroad. He writes regularly online on a variety of topics. He has a keen interest in business, hospitality and tourism management.